Semantic Denotations and Pragmatic Aspects of That - Clause Complements in English Bedtime Stories

Authors

  • Abhinan Wongkittiporn

Keywords:

English Bedtime Stories, That - Clause Complements, Omission of the Complementizer That, Semantic Denotations, Pragmatic Aspects

Abstract

This study investigated semantic denotations and pragmatic aspects concerning the variants of that - clause complements in English bedtime stories (i.e., I fear ∅/that the people will choose him for their king). While previous studies focused on different variants of that – clause complements in academic articles, this study contributes to a novel view by examining the variants of that - clause complements in English bedtime stories. The materials in this study are Complete Shakespeare: Stories from all the plays (2016), Harry Potter and the prisoner of Azkaban (2017) and the Complete Dickens: All the novels retold (2018) as they are best-selling stories (amazon.com). Approximately 300,000 words were made up of 162 tokens of variants. The framework of semantic denotations follows previous studies (Kim & Crosthwaite, 2019; Man & Chau, 2019), whereas Giparaite and Ritčik (2017) is based upon for the framework of pragmatic aspects. The results of this study show that the productive semantic denotations of both variants in English bedtime stories are subjectivity, emotion and expectation. 85.45 percent of the complementizer that are omitted. The omission of the complementizer that is due to formulaic pattern of language use, spoken mode of communication and economy principle. It is hoped that this study will be useful for learners of English as a Second Language (ESL) and learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in terms of applying the notion of writing children bedtime stories in their English classrooms.

References

Anggara, R., & Wennyta, M. (2018). Error analysis on students’ writing of narrative texts made by fourth semester students at English education study program of Batanghari University year 2017/2018. Journal of English Language Teaching, 2(2), 62-60.

Asikin, N. (2017). The analysis of interlanguage produced by the 3rd grade high school students in narrative writing texts. Indonesian EFL Journal, 3(1), 39-44.

Bing, J. P. (2013). Enhancing narrative writing skills through actions adventure video game. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(15), 36-41.

Collin, P. (2015). Exclamative clauses in English. Word, 56(1), 1-17.

Depari, O. M. (2014). A functional and formal comparison on adjective and noun clauses as used in RL Stevenson’s Treasure Island. Widya Warta: Jurnal Ilmiah Universitas Katolik Widya Mandala Madiun, 38(2), 281-298.

Giparaite, J., & Ritčik, J. (2017). A corpus-based analysis of that- deletion in complement clauses after the verbs of saying in English and Lithuanian. Man and the World/Foreign Language, 19(3), 48-66.

Góralczyk, I. (2003). That complement clauses in English. Acta Neophilologica, V, 34-41.

Helala, W., & Aboubou, H. (2020). Difficulties in facing EFL students in narrative paragraph writing: The case of first year students at Batna 2 University. Annee, 17(3), 240-251.

Hidarto, A., & Andrianto, S. (2015). The omissibility of that in noun complement clauses: Corpus evidence. In The 3rd Atma Jaya Conference on Corpus Studies (pp. 1-21). Jakata: Atma Jaya Chatholic University of Indonesia.

Hyland, K., & Tse, P. (2005). Hooking the reader: A corpus study of evaluative that in abstract. English for Specific Purpose, 24, 123-139.

Kilimci, A. (2014). That-clauses in native and non-native academic writing. Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods, 4(1), 301-316.

Kim, C., & Crosthwaite, P. (2019). Disciplinary differences in the use of evaluative that: Expression of stance via that-clauses in business and medicine. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 41, 1-14.

Louro, C. R., & Harris, T. (2013). Evolution with an attitude: The grammaticalisation of epistemic/evidential verbs in Australian English1. English Language & Linguistics, 17(3), 415-443.

Man, D., & Chau, M. (2019). Learning to evaluate through that-clauses: Evidence from a longitudinal learner corpus. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 37, 22-33.

Milbourne, A. (2016). Complete Shakespeare: Stories from all the plays. London, UK: Usborne Cat Ang.

Milbourne, A., & Surducan, M. (2018). Complete Dickens: All the novels retold. London, UK: Usborne Cat Ang.

Mostafa, S. (2019). Developing the EFL advanced learners’ narrative writing skills through a unite plan strategy. CDELT Occasional Papers in the Development of English Education, 68(1), 323-356.

Muliani, S., Norahmi, M., & Asi, N. (2019). The analysis of difficulties in writing narrative text. LET: Linguistics, Literature, English Teaching Journal, 9(2), 244-264.

Oakey, D. (2002). Formulaic language in English academic writing: A corpus-based study of the formal and functional variation of a lexical phrase in different academic disciplines. In R. Reppen, S. M. Fitzmaurice, & D. Biber (eds.). Using corpora to explore linguistic variation: Studies in Corpus Linguistics (pp. 111-129). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Öztürk, E. (2017). A corpus-based study on ‘regret’ as a fictive verb and its complements. European Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 2(2), 88-108.

Phommavongsa, K., Xaysetha, S., & Phomchaleun, S. (2021). The common grammatical errors in writing narrative essays of students at the youth resource center, Savannakhet. Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora, 22(1), 1-13.

Radford, A. (2009). English Sentence Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rohdenburg, G. (2011). Cognitive complexity and horror aequi as factors determining the use of interrogative clause linkers in English. In G. Rohdenburg & B. Mondorf (Eds.). Determinants of grammatical variation in English (pp. 205-250). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Rowling, J. K. (2017). Harry Potter and The prisoner of Azkaban. London, UK: Bloomsbyry.

Shegay, A., Orazav, F., & Krivosheeva, G. (2020). Possible writing techniques for students whose English is a foreign language. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Education Sciences, 8(6), 69-72.

Swan, M. (2016). Practice English usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tsai Y., & Tseng, D. (2011). Tense and aspect in narrative writing. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Udoudom, J., & Anyanwu, O. (2017). Complementize and complement clauses preference for Verb-heads in the written English of Nigerian undergraduates. Language and Semiotics Studies, 3(4), 88-104.

Vartianen, T. (2013). Subjectivity, indefiniteness and semantic change. English Language and Linguistics, 17(1), 157-179.

Vičič, S. (2015). Variation and change in the grammatical marking of stance: The case of that-complement clauses in research articles. English Language Overseas Perspectives and Enquiries, 12(2), 9-28.

Wang, Y. (2019). A functional analysis of text-oriented formulaic expression in written academic discourse: Multiword sequence vs. single words. English for Specific Purposes, 54, 50-61.

Writer, S. (2018). The bedtime story: A new chapter. Indian Journal of Health and Well Being, 9(1), 155-157.

Yilmaz, A. (2018). Form-meaning-use framework in grammar teaching: Research on noun’ clauses in writing skills. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 14(3), 37-45.

Zulyanputri, A. K., & Mahdi, S. (2020). Syntactic function of that-clauses as noun clauses in Stories for rainy days Novel. Journal of English Pedagogy and Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 1-11.

Downloads

Published

2021-11-23